Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability of a man to achieve
or maintain an erection sufficient for his sexual needs or the
needs of his partner. Most men experience this at some point in
their lives, usually by age 40, and are not psychologically
affected by it. Some men, however, experience chronic, complete
erectile dysfunction (impotence), and others, partial or brief
erections. Frequent erectile dysfunction can cause emotional and
relationship problems, and often leads to diminished
self-esteem. Erectile dysfunction has many causes, most of which
are treatable, and is not an inevitable consequence of aging.
Incidence and Prevalence
The term "erectile dysfunction" can
mean the inability to achieve erection, an inconsistent ability
to do so, or the ability to achieve only brief erections. These
various definitions make estimating the incidence of erectile
dysfunction difficult. According to the National Institutes of
Health in 2002, an estimated 15 million to 30 million men in the
United States experience chronic erectile dysfunction.
According to the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS),
approximately 22 out of every 1000 men in the United States
sought medical attention for ED in 1999.
Incidence of the disorder increases with age. Chronic ED affects
about 5% of men in their 40s and 15–25% of men by the age of 65.
Transient ED and inadequate erection affect as many as 50% of
men between the ages of 40 and 70.
Diseases (e.g., diabetes, kidney disease, alcoholism,
atherosclerosis) account for as many as 70% of chronic ED cases
and psychological factors (e.g., stress, anxiety, depression)
may account for 10–20% of cases. Between 35 and 50% of men with
diabetes experience ED.
Anatomy of the Penis
The internal structure of the penis
consists of two cylinder-shaped vascular tissue bodies (corpora cavernosa) that run throughout the penis; the urethra (tube for
expelling urine and ejaculate); erectile tissue surrounding the
urethra; two main arteries; and several veins and nerves. The
longest part of the penis is the shaft, at the end of which is
the head, or glans penis. The opening at the tip of the glans,
which allows for urination and ejaculation, is the meatus.
Physiology of Erection
The physiological process of erection
begins in the brain and involves the nervous and vascular
systems. Neurotransmitters in the brain (e.g., epinephrine,
acetylcholine, nitric oxide) are some of the chemicals that
initiate it. Physical or psychological stimulation (arousal)
causes nerves to send messages to the vascular system, which
results in significant blood flow to the penis. Two arteries in
the penis supply blood to erectile tissue and the corpora cavernosa, which become engorged and expand as a result of
increased blood flow and pressure.
Because blood must stay in the penis to maintain rigidity,
erectile tissue is enclosed by fibrous elastic sheathes
(tunicae) that cinch to prevent blood from leaving the penis
during erection. When stimulation ends, or following
ejaculation, pressure in the penis decreases, blood is released,
and the penis resumes its normal shape.
Erectile Dysfunction Causes
Erectile Dysfunction Diagnosis